On 15 August 2021, When India was celebrating its 75th Independence Day, on the same day her neighboring country Afghanistan become the slave of the Taliban again. who is the Taliban? Why is such a horror of this name exist in Afghanistan? Country politics behind all this scenario? History of Taliban? And form where it came from?
Communist, Soviet Union, and the Mujahideen
From the Start:
The year 1979 brings many drastic Changes in the history of Afghanistan. Afghanistan President and a Communist leader, Nur Muhammad Taraki was killed by Hafizullah Amin. Hafizullah Amin was also a leader with Communist Ideology.
At that time there was too much infighting between the communist leaders as we see above but there was also one more group in the race that were Islamists.
At the same time in 1979, an Iranian Revolution happened by the people against Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who was also a communist leader. He supports Modernism, Secularism and also brought economic development to his nation but he was also greedy of his empire and throne. With his greed, he killed many opposition leaders, killed people who oppose him, and also outlaw many parties.
Because of his greed, Iranian Revolution was held, and having the benefit of it in 1979 Islamists took the control of Iran.
Entry of Soviet Union:
Having a fear that Islamists can also take control of Afganistan, Hafizullah Amin supported Muslim culture by distributing the Korans and using the name of Allah in his speeches. But because of this, he was considered a semi-psychopath by the people.
But In December 1979, before Islamists, Soviet Union took the control of it by sending their armies. And became a superior power of Afganistan. But a question should be pop into your mind why the Soviet Union took control of Afghanistan.
Why soviet union Intervened in Afghanisthan?
There are two main reasons for intervention:
- The first reason was to conserve the communist Ideology, as the soviet Union also supports Communism.
- The secound was that the Union will aslo have one more country as a part of it, and it will also against USA, as that was the time of cold war.
First, look towards constitution:
In the power of the Soviet Union, Babrak Karmal became the first leader of the Afghanistan Government. He released more than 2500 political prisoners. And promised to give a new constitution to the nation and will also provide the Right to Education, Freedom of speech, and also the Right to Express.
As the USA was looking downward in the race, in counter of the Soviet Union he supported the Mujahideen. Mujahideen was a group of guerrilla fighters who fights by hiding in the mountains.
In starting Mujahideen was only authorized by Pakistan and Saudi Arabi. But now the USA also wanted to give authorization to it. Then in order, Central Intelligence Agency(CIA) started a biggest secret Mission called Operation Cyclone.
Later it was also revealed by Robert Gates, who was the director of the operation that on 3rd July 1979 USA has provided a secret aid of $500,000 to the Mujahideen.
Later on, Mujahideen also got the support of the British Secret Agency M16, Central Intelligence Agency of America, and ISI of Pakistan.
In 1988 Dr. Mahammad Nadibullah signed a deal called Geneva Accore with Pakistan. This was a deal for peace. It was decided to have an election in Afganistan and then in 1988 elections were held and Dr. Mahammad Nadibullah formed his government. In 1990 he changed Afghanistan to the Afghanistan Islamic Republic, to attain religious support and maintain peace.
In order to maintain peace America also present a deal that he will not supply arms to Mujahideen if the Soviet Union took its foot out of the nation. The Soviet Union agreed on the deal and took back its army. It was essential for the Soviet Union because it was also at the stage of breaking. And after 9 years it left the nation.
But that deal was false and America hasn’t stopped supplying arms to the Mujahideen. And this proved the worst for Dr. Mahammad Nadibullah and Afghanistan too.
Rise of Mujahideen:
In 1992, when the Soviet Union took every support from Afganistan then Mujahideen took Benefit of it and won the civil war and took the control of it. But there were various infighting between the Mujahadeen that who will be the leader. Because mujahideen themselves consist of many ethnicities.
Then Burhanuddin Rabbani became the new leader of the Islamic State of Afghanistan. But the war is not to end here then a new group was established to suffocate the mujahids.
Rise of Taliban:
In 1996, the Taliban roses. Taliban can be defined as Talib which, means students and refers to the group and makes the Taliban a group of students.
Mullah Abdul Salam Zaeea went to Mulla Omar who was teaching in a religious school. Both were former Mujahadeen. Abdul Zaeea took a proposal to lead the fight for Afghanistan. And he accepted it.
He made a group of 50 Students and named Taliban. And further he increased his army with the students coming from Pakistan religious groups. Taliban was more Qataris than mujahadeen.
In 1996 he the Taliban removed the new leader and took control of Afghanistan. Taliban also Captures Kabul and changed the name of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan to the Emirates of Afghanistan.
Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab of Emirates consider the Taliban as a legitimate Government.
Then the Taliban banned so many things in the nation like TV, RADIOS, the internet, chess, etc. They made it compulsory for women to cover their full body, they can,t go outside alone without the company of a man, they are not allowed to work, and girls more than the age of 10 can’t go to school.
Trying to fight against Taliban:
In the late 1990s, some of the Mujahideen forces tried to fight against the Taliban. And they were known by the title of Northern Alliance and were head by Ahmad Shah Massoud. But by 2001, the Northern Alliance loses the fight.
This all was making Afghanistan the worst palace. Initially, the people were the thing that Taliban will bring peace but this all was just a Myth. But in 2001 After defeating the Northern alliance Taliban done a big mistake by including America Back in the field.
America vs Taliban:
Just two days after defeating Alliance a group of Taliban called Al Qaeda attacked America on 11 September and this is also known as the 9/11 attack. Al Qaeda was headed by Osama Bin Laden. The reason was given by the Taliban for the attack was that its a revenge for all torture done by America on Islam.
America told the Taliban to give them Osama but the Taliban refused and then America conduct Airstrikes on regions of the Taliban in Afghanistan and some regions of Pakistan where there were chances of Osama. And with the help of the Northern Alliance in 2001, America forced out the Taliban.
Second, look towards Constitution:
Hamid Karzai became the new president of Afganistan and made his interim Government. Then everything was looking good and looks like now the peace will remain.
In 2004 new constitution was established and all the rights will be provided to the people. In 2011 Osama bin laden was also killed by the USA. In 2013, Omar was also died because of an illness.
USA army don’t leave Afghanistan and trained their Armies for the future. But 2020 Donald Trump’s Government gave orders to leave Afghanistan.
And Now Afghanistan again is in the Control of the Taliban. We Will talk about the hows, whys, and the reason in the neat blog and will tell about the present condition.